Publications

Performance of Mobile Users on Side Drawer and Bottom Drawer Menus

Abstract In order to investigate how well the side drawer and bottom drawer mobile menu function, we investigated the performance of twenty users on ‘known-item’ searches of word menus. Our performance measures were the selection time and the number of errors. Results showed that although there was no significant difference in selection errors between the two menus (around 98% for both), target selection was noticeably faster using the bottom drawer menu.
Khalid Majrashi and Shiroq Al-Megren. (2020). Performance of Mobile Users on Side Drawer and Bottom Drawer Menus. MobileHCI 2020: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services.

Performance of mobile users with text-only and text-and-icon menus in seated and walking situations

Abstract We investigated mobile users’ performance on text-only and text-and-icon menu interfaces of short and medium lengths. We conducted two experiments, with 18 participants each, on four mobile menus in two common usage situations, seated and walking. In Experiment 1, seated participants conducted known-item searches of word menus on short and medium text-only menus and short and medium text-and-icon menus. In Experiment 2, we replicated the first experiment in a walking context of use. We used selection time and error as performance measures in both experiments, plus walking speed in the second. Results showed that, when seated, participants recorded faster times in selecting targets with text-and-icon medium menu than text-only medium menu. Participants, when walking, had significantly faster selection times with text-and-icon short menu than text-only short menu, and with text-and-icon medium menu than text-only medium menu. Text-and-icon medium menu also resulted in fewer incorrect selections by users than text-only medium menu in the walking situation. Further, when comparing menus of the same length in the walking situation, text-and-icon menu had a more efficient learning curve than text-only menu. Walking speed was better with text-and-icon medium menu than text-only medium menu. We discuss results and highlight theoretical and practical implications.
Khalid Majrashi. (2020). Performance of mobile users with text-only and text-and-icon menus in seated and walking situations. Behaviour & Information Technology.

A Model for Predicting Users’ Intention to Use Voice Recognition Technologies at the Workplace in Saudi Arabia

Abstract The use of voice recognition technologies (VRTs) has been expanding, and these are currently used at workplaces. This study tested a model for predicting users’ intention to use VRTs at workplaces. The model extended the technology acceptance model (TAM) and considered four additional factors—perceived privacy, perceived security, perceived trust, and social norms—and four variables—age, education level, gender, and nationality. We validated the model based on responses from 300 employees working in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated a medium level of acceptance and a valid TAM in its original form. Further, perceived privacy and perceived security are significant predictors of perceived trust and perceived trust is an important predictor of attitudes and intention to use VRTs. The social norms variable was a significant predictor of intention to use and accept VRTs. The results also showed that age and education level significantly affect users’ attitudes toward VRT adoption.
Khalid Majrashi. (2020). A Model for Predicting Users’ Intention to Use Voice Recognition Technologies at the Workplace in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction.

Voice User Interfaces: HCI Research Prospects within the Arab World

Abstract The rapid growth of Voice User Interfaces (VUIs) are an integral part of an individual’s everyday routine. The global expansion of VUIs has heightened the significance of cultural contexts which must be taken into consideration when VUI designers are building applications for a multicultural audience. Despite the extensive amount of VUI studies and their connection with Automatic Speech Recognition technologies (ASP), there is limited research focusing on the challenges of VUIs from a socio-cultural and global perspective, which impact users from an Arab background residing within the Arab states. This study explores a cultural context through the foundation of the Arabic language. The results of two VUI investigations are also discussed. The study emphasizes the significance of HCI research regarding the use of VUIs within the Arab community, identifying future prospects for further investigation.
Khalid Majrashi and Shiroq Al-Megren. (2019). Voice User Interfaces: HCI Research Prospects within the Arab World CHI2019 Workshop: an Eye to the Future: HCI Research and Practice in the Arab World., ArabHCI.org.

Post-Transitioning User Performance on Cross-Device Menu Interfaces

AbstractMulti-device user-interaction behavior creates a need to design cross-device menus that support users to re-locate menu items efficiently and effectively after the transition from one device to another. We conducted two laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of specific designs of cross-device menus on post-transitioning user performance (selection time and selection error). In Experiment 1, a total of 72 participants moved between 32 desktop and mobile menu interfaces (representing 16 different designs of cross-device menus) to re-locate menu items. We investigated the effect on user performance of the cross-device menu configuration (complementary versus redundant items), menu length (short versus medium), menu item order (consistent versus inconsistent), and menu format (text-only versus text-and-icon items). The results showed significant main effects of configuration, length and item order with large partial eta-squared sizes. Users performed better with redundant menus, short menus, and menus with consistent item order than they did with complementary menus, medium menus, and menus with inconsistent item order. In Experiment 2, 20 participants moved between eight desktop and mobile menu interfaces (representing four different designs of cross-device menus) to re-locate menu items. We focused on the effect on user performance of the menu layout (horizontal-desktop and vertical-mobile versus vertical-desktop and vertical-mobile) at two different lengths (short versus medium). The results showed no significant effect of menu layout, and a significant effect of length with a small partial eta-squared size. Our study provides a foundation to researchers interested in further investigation of cross-device menu designs, and to practitioners in designing cross-device menus that allow more efficient and effective re-locating of menu items when moving between devices.
Majrashi, K. (2019). Post-Transitioning User Performance on Cross-Device Menu Interfaces. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.‏

Information Security Awareness of Employees in Saudi Government Sector

AbstractWith the rise of cyber-attacks on government organizations in Saudi Arabia, their spending in technological solutions has increased to defend against cyber-attacks and protect their information. However, despite the importance of the technological side, focusing on it alone is a futile exercise in preventing information security threats. The human aspects of information security play an important role in reaching an advanced level of information security in an organization. In this study, we adapted the Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q) to measure the information security awareness in Saudi government sector. We also examined the relationship between knowledge of information security policy and procedures, attitude towards policy and procedures and behaviour of users when using work computers. The analysis of 521 responses from 11 government sub-sectors indicated a weak awareness of information security among employees. The results also showed a strong positive relationship between knowledge of policy and procedures, attitude towards policy and procedures and self-reported behaviour of users. We highlighted recommendations for raising awareness of information security in Saudi government sector.
Majrashi, K. (2019). Information Security Awareness of Employees in Saudi Government Sector.‏ Studies and Research Center, Institute of Public Administration.

Task Continuity and Mobile User Interfaces

AbstractTask continuity is an important inter-usability attribute, for enhancing user transitioning experience. Mobile devices are commonly used in cross-device interaction, in combination with desktops or laptops devices. However, a lack of studies explored and compared factors affecting task continuity when users transit to and from the different types of mobile user interfaces: native mobile application, mobile website and mobile responsive website. To address this, we conducted a user study, with twenty-four voluntary participants, to investigate factors affecting task continuity when users switch between the desktop website and the different types of mobile user interfaces. We used think-aloud protocols, observation and questionnaire to gather data. During our experiments, each participant switched between desktop and mobile interfaces to perform inter-related tasks. Inconsistency was a principle factor affecting task continuity when participants switched from and to mobile native applications and mobile websites. The difficulty in controlling user interface components and the slow loading of contents were two main factors affecting task continuity when users switched to continue working on mobile websites and mobile responsive websites.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2018, November). Task Continuity and Mobile User Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (pp. 475-481). ACM.‏

Evaluating Cross-Device Transitioning Experience in Seated and Moving Contexts

AbstractCross-platform services allow access to information across different devices in different locations and situational contexts. We observed forty-five participants completing tasks while transitioning between a laptop and a mobile phone across different contexts (seated–moving and seated–seated). Findings showed that in each test setting, users were sensitive to the same cross-platform user experience (UX) elements. However, the seated–moving settings generated more issues, for example, more consistency problems. Two moving-related factors (attentiveness and manageability) also affected cross-platform UX. In addition, we found design issues associated with using mobile user interfaces (UIs) while walking. We analyzed the issues and proposed a set of UX design principles for mobile UIs in moving situations, such as reduction and aesthetic simplicity. This suggests designing context-aware cross-platform services that take transitioning into account for enhanced mobility.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2018). Evaluating Cross-Device Transitioning Experience in Seated and Moving Contexts. In PACIS (p. 195).‏

HCI Practices in Software-Development Environments in Saudi Arabia

AbstractWithin the human–computer interaction (HCI) community, there is a wide range of experience and approaches to integrating user research in the software-development life cycle. Independent HCI consulting and contracting are becoming a more prevalent mode of user research globally, but our understanding of the local context in some regions is limited. This paper reports the results of a survey of 65 practitioners working in software-development environments in Saudi Arabia. The survey was conducted in January 2018 and covered a range of aspects: profiles of respondents and their organizations, their perception of usability, user experience, and user-centered design, assessment of current HCI activities, and motivation for and obstacles to adopting HCI practice in software-development environments. The results revealed that the recognition of HCI practices was greater than expected. The adoption of HCI practices in the industry and private sector was greater than in government organizations. The findings also suggested that the most-used HCI activities were prototyping and stakeholder meetings for requirements elicitation. The degree of importance of decision factors for adopting HCI practices and the frequency of obstacles to adoption of the practices varied slightly among government, private, and semi-government organizations. The study results also provided basic information for HCI practitioners and researchers who are interested in appropriating HCI methods to meet local needs. Here, we discuss the results and provide implications for advancing HCI practice in software-development environments in Saudi Arabia.
Majrashi, K., & Al-Wabil, A. (2018, July). HCI Practices in Software-Development Environments in Saudi Arabia. In International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design (pp. 58-77). Springer, Cham.‏

User Need and Experience of Hajj Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Designing for the Largest Religious Annual Gathering

AbstractThe Hajj pilgrimage is one of the largest annual events in the world. Each year, millions of Muslims visit the holy sites in Makkah. While Hajj mobile applications that help pilgrims perform Hajj activities efficiently are gaining popularity, little has been done to investigate pilgrims’ needs and their experiences of these applications. During the 2017 Hajj season, we conducted a study to investigate the needs and experiences of Hajj mobile service users. We used a questionnaire to investigate the need for 20 Hajj mobile features and found that maps (particularly offline maps) was the most needed feature. We also interviewed 16 pilgrims to investigate user experience (UX) of Hajj mobile applications. Three major themes emerged from our qualitative analysis of the perceptions reported by our participants: UX problems with the current mobile applications, the importance level of application features, and opportunities for improving the UX of applications. We relate these themes to specific implications for designing a better UX of mobile applications used for Hajj and its related domain (religion), and to applications for use in similar contexts (e.g., crowd and movement situations).
Majrashi, K. (2018). User need and experience of Hajj mobile and ubiquitous systems: Designing for the largest religious annual gathering. Cogent Engineering, 5(1).‏

The Ubiquitous Device Transition Experience of the Mobile User

AbstractIt is now common for users to move from one device to another when interacting with a service that is available across platforms. In addition, not all usage contexts involve being seated, potentially leading to usability issues that have not been tested. In this study, we tested the transitioning experience of mobile users while interacting with cross-platform services, across different contextual settings (seated-moving, and seated-seated). Our study findings showed that in each test setting, users were sensitive to the same cross-platform user experience (UX) elements, such as consistency and fluency. However, the seated-moving setting consistently resulted in a larger number of inter-usability issues.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2017, November). The Ubiquitous Device Transition Experience of the Mobile User. In Proceedings of the 14th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services (pp. 537-538). ACM.‏

Cross-Platform Cross-Cultural User Experience

AbstractMany interactive systems can be accessed across a range of different platforms, enabling cross-platform services and allowing users to migrate their tasks from one platform to another. The aim of this study is to investigate the culture-related experiential side of using multiple interactive systems across platforms by studying users from different cultural backgrounds. In this paper, we present our findings from a user study of five cross-platform services. We conducted the user study in Australia and Saudi Arabia. Participants in Australia and Saudi Arabia interacted with English and Arabic versions of the services respectively. We used think-aloud protocol, observation and questionnaires to gather data. During our experiments, each participant performed a set of inter-related tasks using a cross-platform service across two devices: laptop and mobile phone. We identified five objective cultural factors (direction, translation, meaning of icons, formatting, and typing interface) that influence cross-platform user experience. The power distance and uncertainty avoidance subjective cultural dimensions also influenced user perception of cross-platform services. Based on our findings and analyses, we propose a design model that encompasses these cultural factors to guide designing international cross-platform services.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2016, July). Cross-platform cross-cultural user experience. In Proceedings of the 30th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference: Fusion! (p. 20). BCS Learning & Development Ltd..‏

Correlating Cross-Platform Usability Problems with Eye Tracking Patterns

AbstractEvaluating the cross-platform usability of multiple interactive systems has become increasingly essential. Despite eye tracking being used to supplement traditional usability assessment, there is little research on its use for cross-platform usability evaluation. Our exploratory study seeks relationship between eye-tracking metrics and cross-platform usability problems. We user-tested three cross-platform services and identified a set of usability problems. We separated the identified problems into traditional and cross-platform usability problems. Some of the cross-platform usability problems were associated with users’ eye-tracking patterns. We found that consistency on many levels is a major problem cross-platform and we recommend some considerations for evaluators to use as indicators to predict possible cross-platform usability problems.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2016, July). Correlating cross-platform usability problems with eye tracking patterns. In Proceedings of the 30th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference: Fusion! (p. 40). BCS Learning & Development Ltd..‏

A Cross-Platform Usability Measurement Model

AbstractUbiquitous technologies are changing our lives. We are becoming more connected and able to conduct our computing tasks anywhere at anytime from any device. Vertical interaction with an individual interactive system is no longer the only way to achieve tasks. Currently, users can interact horizontally with multiple user interfaces to achieve their tasks. This has created a need for measuring usability of multiple interactive systems, concerning users horizontal interaction beside their vertical interaction. In this paper, we surveyed the actual meanings and interpretations of usability and its attributes across several standards and models. We found that the existing usability standards and models do not consider horizontal usability aspects. Therefore, taking into consideration the characteristics of user interaction with multiple interactive systems, a hierarchical model, which is called Cross-Platform Usability Measurement (CPUM), has been developed. This model decomposes cross-platform usability into 12 factors. These factors were further decomposed into measurable criteria, and finally into specific metrics.
Majrashi, K., & Hamilton, M. (2015). A cross-platform usability measurement model. Lecture Notes on Software Engineering, 3(2), 132.‏

Multiple User Interfaces and Cross-Platform User Experience: Theoretical Foundations

AbstractEvaluating the user experience of cross-platform interactive systems has become a research issue of increasing importance. There is a lack of clear concepts and definitions for testing, evaluating or even teaching cross-platform user experience. In this paper, we review the actual meanings and interpretations of different concepts in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) relevant to cross-platform service usage. We also investigate the traditional definitions of usability and user experience before extending them to develop precise definitions for cross-platform usability and user experience. Our paper builds on existing theories to establish the theoretical foundations that can help us better conceptualise cross-platform user experience evaluation.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2015). Multiple user interfaces and cross-platform user experience: Theoretical foundations. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (CCSEA-2015). AIRCC Publishing Corporation (pp. 43-57).‏

Cross-platform usability and eye-tracking measurement and analysis model

AbstractEvaluating the usability of cross-platform interactive systems has become increasingly important. In this paper, we review the interpretations of current eye-movement metrics across several usability and HCI studies. We found that the existing eye-tracking metrics and their associated interpretations do not consider cross-platform usability (CPU) aspects. Therefore, taking into consideration the characteristics of user interaction with Multiple User Interfaces (MUIs), a usability-engineering model, which is called Eye Tracking Measurement and Analysis model for Cross-Platform Usability (CPU-EMA), has been developed. This model decomposed eye-tracking metrics for cross-platform usability into four high-level metrics, namely, cross-platform fixation, saccade, scanpath and gaze. The high-level metrics were further decomposed into low-level metrics with possible interpretations for cross-platform usability. The model also provided procedures for measuring and analysing cross-platform usability using eye-movement data.
Majrashi, K., Hamilton, M., & Uitdenbogerd, A. L. (2014, December). Cross-platform usability and eye-tracking measurement and analysis model. In Proceedings of the 26th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures: the Future of Design (pp. 418-421). ACM.‏

Education in User Experience of Cloud Computing

AbstractThe role of cloud computing presents new challenges for the education of user experience principles in software engineering courses. Not only is the adoption of cloud services increasing, but the character of the computing paradigm in delivering services is itself changing. In this paper, we describe the current status of user experience education, the concerns introduced by cloud computing, and our recommendations for updating user experience curricula. After investigating user experience concerns of cloud computing, we introduce topics for curricula to cover the research issues. We identify four challenges for educators in the computer science community and identify aspirational topics for user experience of cloud computing education subjects in software engineering and cloud computing courses.
Majrashi K., Hamilton M. and Uitdenbogerd A. L., 2014. Education in user experience of cloud computing, presented at The 23rd Australasian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC), Sydney, Australia, 7–10 April 2014.

Cross-platform user experience

AbstractMany interactive systems can be accessed across a range of different platforms, enabling cross-platform services and allowing users to migrate their tasks from one platform to another. Despite the increased worldwide use of cross-platform services, there is limited research into (1) how cross-platform usability can be assessed, (2) key, culture-related, and context-related user experiences (UXs) of multiple interactive systems across different platforms, (3) user interaction behavioural patterns when switching between devices and (4) the use of eye tracking for cross-platform usability evaluation. In this thesis, we present our findings from a set of cross-platform user interaction studies designed to answer research questions addressing these four areas. We used think-aloud protocol, observation, questionnaires and eye tracking to gather data. We defined cross-platform usability and developed a model for assessing it. In the first user study, we investigated our new model for assessing cross-platform usability, the key cross-platform UX elements and the user interaction behavioural patterns over three cross-platform services. Our analysis showed that our assessment model could be valuable for assessing and quantifying cross-platform usability. We also found that the data-collection techniques employed in our model including thinking aloud, observation and questionnaires allowed for the identification of a set of cross-platform usability issues. The think-aloud protocol generated the most cross-platform usability issues across all tested cross-platform services and tended to be the most valuable technique. Our analysis also showed that users were sensitive to the following six key cross-platform UX elements: consistency of system components across platforms, fluency in resuming interrupted tasks after transferring from one device to another, configuration of devices and functionality, service learnability, the extent to which user interfaces (UIs) supported the recognition of elements rather than recalling them after the transitioning process and the transparency of each UI. We also identified a set of cross-platform user interaction behavioural patterns, such as visual memory and habituation. The key UX elements and user interaction behaviours need to be taken into account when designing a better cross-platform UX. In the second user study, we investigated cross-platform cross-cultural UX. Forty students volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were from nine different countries. They carried out a set of tasks on five cross-platform services. Findings showed that users from the different cultures were sensitive to six cross-platform UX elements: consistency, fluency, configuration, learnability, recognition and transparency. This finding confirms the results of cross-platform UX elements in our first user study. Our analysis also identified a set of objective and subjective cultural factors that most influence cross-platform UX. The objective factors are service related (direction, translation, meaning of icons, format) and device related (typing interface design). These factors impacted how users perceived cross-platform services in terms of consistency and fluency. The subjective factors are power–distance (PD) and uncertainty–avoidance (UA). These factors impacted how users from different countries perceived cross-platform UX issues differently. The objective and subjective cultural factors need to be considered when designing international cross-platform services. In the third user study, we investigated cross-platform cross-context UX. Forty-five participants performed tasks on five cross-platform services across different contexts (in terms of location and situation). Participants were divided into ten different groups. Five participant groups switched between interfaces across devices in a seated–moving contextual setting. In this setting, participants used a laptop while seated in a lab environment and a mobile phone in a moving situation outside the lab. The other five participant groups attempted their tasks using cross-platform services in a seated setting. In this setting, participants used both a laptop and a mobile phone while seated in the lab. Our study findings showed that in each test setting, users were sensitive to five cross-platform UX elements: consistency, fluency, configuration, learnability and recognition. These five elements were also identified by the first and second user studies. However, our analysis showed that testing cross-platform UX in the seated–moving settings generated more issues (e.g., more consistency problems). We additionally found two moving-related factors (attentiveness and manageability) that affected cross-platform UX. Another outcome of this study was that users reported several UX design issues associated with mobile UIs operating while walking. We analysed the issues and proposed five UX design principles (reduction, aesthetic simplicity, enlargement, error prevention and icon use) for mobile UIs in moving situations. This suggests benefits in having context-aware cross-platform services. Our fourth user study sought a relationship between eye-tracking metrics and cross-platform usability problems. We user tested three cross-platform services and identified a set of usability problems. We separated the identified problems into traditional and cross-platform usability problems. Some of the cross-platform usability problems were associated with user eye-tracking patterns (ETPs). We found that inconsistency was the main source of cross-platform usability problems and we recommend some considerations for evaluators to use as indicators when predicting possible cross-platform usability problems. In our final study for this research, we conducted a survey of eight professionals specialising in UX to seek their opinions about our developed cross-platform usability assessment model and UX design framework. The model and framework were finalised, incorporating results from all of our previous user studies. Overall, UX experts assessed the model and the framework as appropriate and useful.
Majrashi, K., 2016. Cross-platform user experience (Ph.D. Doctoral thesis). RMIT University.

User Experience of University Websites

AbstractUser experience is one of the most prominent aspects of website quality today. Higher education institute has a need for an effective website to help with attracting new students as well as for serving the needs of current students and staff. In this book, several usability measurements are carried out in order to outline the features a university website should include for provision of relevant information and services to users. These features cover properties related to student and staff requirements and behaviours. Furthermore, an investigation for the design and content of eight university websites around the world has been able to identify the important features and necessary content that should be implemented and included in any university website. In addition, quality guidelines for academic websites, concerning usability, accessibility, functionality, internationalisation, reliability, content, layout and information architecture are included. Therefore, the primary readers of this book are the software designers and engineers interested in User Experience and usability, especially for those who are more interested in designing, and developing academic websites.
Majrashi, K. and Hamilton, M., 2014. User experience of university websites, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing: Germany